06 December 2008


Berkay Dinçer
Hassuna lies 22 miles south of Mousul and was found by Fuad Safar in 1942. Its height reaches 7 meters above the valley that it lies on and occupational debris show a 200x150-meter rectangle. Excavations were undertaken at the campaigns of the years 1943 and 1944. The earliest evidences of a farming society in all over the world were found in the oldest levels of Hassuna (Ia, Ib and Ic). Despite no architectural remain was found in the oldest layers, it could be presupposed that a semi-nomadic society occupied the site and, according to the ashes of campfires found, lived in a kind of tent. At level II, remains of walls reach nearly 1 meter but it is still questionable that settlement planned. As a general view, we can suppose that, building tradition developed chronologically in the Hassuna sequence.

Prehistoric pottery of Hassuna can be divided into five ware groups. Coarse ware is generally made of straw tempered clay. This is the earliest pottery of Hassuna. Husking trays are oval shaped. The majority of the earliest bowls are burnished outside. Burnishing could be made with a pebble. Both coarse and burnished wares are seen in the earliest and second levels. Archaic painted ware is seen mostly in the levels Ic and II. Number of this ware group decreases in the level III and it totally disappears in the level IV. Hassuna standard ware, divided into incised, painted and both painted and incised groups. These ware groups reach their peak in levels IV and V.

Stone tools do not seem as qualified as those found at Jarmo. Both obsidian and flint were used to make tools. Turquoise is perhaps imported. Beads, pendants and some small ornaments exist. Figurines are most commonly shaped in the "mother goddess" type and made of baked clay.

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