To become archaeologist, you need to study archaeology in the university (in USA anthropology).
Archaeologists study ancient cultures and it has some sub-sections like prehistory (before the invention of writing), protohistory (after invention of writing), classical archaeology (Greek and Roman civilisations) and middle age archaeology.
Main method for archaeologist is to excavate and then analyze the artifacts. If archaeologist finds a piece of wood or an organic material like this, he/she sends it to chemistry laboratory for carbon dating.
There are not very much job for the archaeologist. Usually they work in the universities and museums. If there are some, archaeologists can find job in consulting companies.
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